- Ferret-ligation: description, characteristic
- Distribution area
- Nutrition and Lifestyle
- Multiplication of dressings
- Dressing in the Red Book
The alter-dressing refers to the predators of the Mustelidae, listed in the Red Book, is the only species of its kind. For the beauty and originality of coloring wool they are called "marble ferrets" or pereguzny.
Ferret-ligation: description, characteristic
Externally, the ligation or reload resembles a miniature ferret, the literal translation of the Latin name ( vormela peregusna ) means “little worm”. His muzzle is slightly rounded, his ears are large with a white rim. The body shape is typical for a family of mustelles: an elongated narrow body and short legs. Its main difference is the beautiful original motley color of coarse fur, consisting of alternating white, black and yellow spots on a brown background.
As can be seen from the photo and description, ferret-ligation looks like a very cute animal. Its body is 27–38 cm long, its tail is up to 17–20 cm, the weight of an adult animal is 350–750 g. The black muzzle is covered with a snow-white band that looks like a sling over his eyes, for which he was given this name. There is a large white-beige stain around the mouth, and the neck is decorated with 3 light stripes. The back is covered with a complex pattern of multi-colored spots and stripes, the fluffy tail is also beautifully colored: at the base is red-brown, turning into light gray, at the end - black-brown. Breasts and legs - black.
Ferrets live in the dressing 6-7 years in nature, sometimes up to 9 in the zoo.
The character of a war ligation, when attacking enemies, he first rescues in a tree, and with an immediate threat he bends his back, heaves his hair, shows his teeth, throwing his head back. Awesome view is confirmed by growling, squealing and chemical attack: the animal rushes and releases a fetid liquid from the special anal glands from under the tail.
Lives ferret ligation in the south-eastern part of Europe, Asia, in some regions of China. In Russia, animals are found in the south of the European part (Krasnodar Territory, etc.), in Altai and Ciscaucasia. Also pereguzni live in Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, the Caucasus and the steppes of Central Asia.
The main zone of residence is open steppe areas, treeless, sometimes covered with shrubs, the outskirts of forest massifs, river valleys, forest-steppe and semi-desert plains. Occasionally there are hori-dressings in the mountains up to a height of 3 km, they are found in city parks and squares, often settled not far from the melon-field.
They choose places of residence for themselves in the ready burrows of other animals, sometimes dig their own, using paws with long claws and teeth to remove stones. In the daytime, sit in the shelter, and change it daily.
On the territory of the CIS there are 2 types of dressings (typical and Trans-Caspian), slightly different in coloring of wool.
Nutrition and Lifestyle
Evening activity is characteristic of the ferret-ligation way of life; therefore, it is hardly noticeable in nature. The predator hunts more often underground, occasionally in trees. Its main food consists of small rodents: vole mice, hamsters, jerboas, gophers, gerbils. Sometimes it eats birds' eggs, berries, and likes to feast on vegetable food: melons and gourds, fruits of bushes (dogrose, thorns, grapes, hawthorn).
Pereguzi hunt on its own area of 10-30 hectares, in search of prey for a day, the animal can pass through the underground passages up to 600 m, focusing on its sense of smell. There are cases of joint hunting ligation of gerbils with foxes. Moreover, during ground hunting animals can jump in length up to 60 cm.
Meeting with each other, the dressings show aggression, but more often they each live on their own territory, sleeping in their next hole.
Multiplication of dressings
About breeding polecats have little scientific information. Active mating in pairs occurs in the summer. It is known that the pregnancy in the female lasts up to 11 months, which is associated with the intrauterine development of the egg, which begins to develop only several months after fertilization.
In the litter, 3-8 blind calves weighing 3-4 g are born, which occurs from February to March. Their first coat has a light beige color, which does not look like an adult color, however, the future skin pattern is visible on dark skin. Toddlers feed on mother's milk for 40-50 days and develop quickly, and then their hunting training begins.
Sexual maturity in young dressings occurs: in females - at 3 months, in males - per year.
There are some known cases of keeping chorea dressings in European and Russian zoos. Animals are bred with success in the Leningrad and Rostov zoos.
The animal is different wild temperament, but well tamed. Some lovers keep them at home. Because of the high activity of the animals, they need a spacious cage or aviary. To get rid of the unpleasant odor, they painlessly remove the anal glands. Hatchlings can be fed with a mixture of milk and raw eggs.
Dressing in the Red Book
The number of this type of marten has been drastically reduced in recent decades, the habitat is decreasing, mainly due to the development of the steppe lands with the expansion of agricultural areas. The fur does not represent its value, only poachers extract it. In nature, the animal benefits by destroying small rodents that harm agriculture and spread infectious diseases.
The decrease in the number of polecat ligation is also associated with the widespread disappearance of the main prey of this predator - gophers and gadflies. Often they perish, having poisoned with insecticides with which poison pests, or in the traps set on steppe rodents.
In the Russian and Ukrainian Red Data Book, ferret ligation is recorded for the purpose of preserving this species of animals as a rare animal with a shrinking range. He is also included in the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
In Ukraine, it lives in the territory of Lugansk and Ukrainian state reserves. In 2017, a coin was issued dedicated to this rare predator and endangered animal species.