What does the word "discouraged" mean? Is it an adjective or participle?


How rich is the Russian language! After all, it seems only to ignorant people that everything in it is clear, transparent and understandable. In fact, everything is not so. Two words that sound exactly the same can mean completely different or different spelling in one little letter, which, when pronounced, gives the same sound in both cases. And there are some interesting words that seem to be understandable, but the history of their origin is amazing. For example, the word "discouraged." Is this a short adjective or a short passive participle? And what is its etymology?

Joke pun

- Neighbor, are you discouraged?

“You are telling the truth, Daria!” Ferret night all chickens decided, without a knife, stabbed. So I really became discouraged. This is the case - not a single chicken is left!


Meaning and etymology

However, the word “discouraged” is not at all what the elderly and not very educated woman had in mind. After all, chickens have absolutely nothing to do with it. The root of the word is not “hens” at all, but “courage”. And it came to the Russian language from France. The initial meaning of "courage" was equivalent to "courage." Gradually, the word in the Russian language got accustomed and acquired other meanings: “enthusiasm”, “swagger”, “courage”, “showy courage”, “increased cheerfulness”. The rich were swaggering, squandering money in taverns, swaggering over their peasants, tyrant-landowner, swaggering drunken husbands over wordless, submissive wives. And in the morning, when they saw what they had done soberly, they took a discouraged look, when there was no dope for fun, courage confounded in the face of the gendarme, or conscience awoke, or rather its remnants.

Word semantics

What is the meaning of the word "discouraged"? Dictionaries interpret it as “deprived of self-confidence, ” “stunned, ” “in a state of confusion, ” “astonished, ” “in a state of confusion, ” “perplexed, ” “distressed, ” ory-white, confused, “ embarrassed, embarrassed, bewildered, dumbfounded, preoccupied, confused, perplexed, stunned, upset. All these definitions in their meaning go back to one basic - “devoid of courage.”


The part of speech to which the word "discouraged" refers

This word was formed from the verb "discourage, " that is, "perplex, " "upset, " "deprive of confidence." Therefore this is a passive communion. Since there is a prefix, even two, then the suffix is ​​used -nn-. If the form “discouraged” or “discouraged” is used, the word should be defined as a participle in short form.


To understand what is "discouraged", you need to refer to examples of the use of the word.

  1. “Marina left the store with shopping. She remembered that part of the money before leaving the house left in the purse. However, opening it, found that the wallet is completely empty. Surprised and upset, she realized that she was brazenly robbed. Passers-by turned around after her, seeing the expression of Marina’s face so discouraged that simply her heart would break from such a dumbfounded look of a girl. ”


  2. "Discouraged by what he saw in the morning, Vasily clutched at his head …" He got drunk like that! Two corpses, broken furniture and broken dishes - how to get out of this lousy story? " - he thought, tossing around the room in search of the right decision.
  3. “The dog, accustomed to receiving her portion of porridge with meat every morning, was discouraged by the fact that instead of eating, she found a clean empty bowl. Something had clearly happened, and that something was terrible. ”
  4. “The moon looked discouraged at the fields: yesterday the wheat was still yellow there, but today it is empty. Or in vain she is sad? The people are having fun … "

As can be seen from the above examples, the word "discouraged" can be used both in popular speech and in fiction. Often, the use of his resort and poets.

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