- What is a nested doll?
- History of creation
- Where did the name "matryoshka"
- Forever in history
- Birth toys
- How to make nesting dolls
- Marvelous beauty painting
- Folklore heritage of the country
- Semenov masters painted 1600 dolls
Semenovskaya matryoshka - having heard the name of this work of art, everyone remembers the homeland of the Khokhloma painting, craftsmen and woodcarving masters. At first, the nested doll was not the first thing the craftsmen did, but it took root forever in the crafts of the city of Semenov, Nizhny Novgorod region. The toy differs in beauty and unique color.
Semenovskaya matryoshka is one of the unique and most recognizable symbols of Russia. This souvenir appeared at the end of the XIX century, when in the history of the country a lot changed radically, changing the culture of the Russian people. At this time, the era of "Slavic style" flourishes. Increasing interest is the new fine arts, at the same time reviving old crafts.
What is a nested doll?
If you try to define this toy, it is approximately the following: the nested doll is a Russian wooden doll, inside which are similar to it, different from each other in size and murals are the same nesting dolls.
The first such toy made of wood was presented to the people in the form of eight alternations of girls - boys, who held black roosters and little chickens in their hands, and the last, the smallest, was made in the form of a swaddled baby. All eight pupae were painted with bright color paints using folk motifs. This first matryoshka master toy V.P. Zvezdochkin, and painted by artist S.V. Malyutin.
History of creation
Creating works of art in the "folk style", famous artists, cabinetmakers, and often hired craftsmen took as a model toys of other nations. There is a fashion for all Japanese, because the oriental specimens of art cause the greatest interest at that time. It was then that the ancestor of the Russian nesting doll was brought to our land.
From the Japanese city of Honshu was brought a figure of a Buddhist sage - Fukurumu, within which several of the same were invested, only smaller. The most interesting thing is that the Russian monk who miraculously landed on the islands of Japan cut out this work of art first.
According to historians, the Semenov matryoshka, whose history begins in the 19th century, was created in the image of Fukurum, it was his figurine that became the model for the Russian toy.
Semenovskaya matryoshka - a symbol of motherhood, a strong and healthy woman. A doll that carries the whole family is also a symbol of fertility.
The woman is the parent, the keeper of the hearth. The mother had to work a lot, look after the children, take care of their food, for that they needed strong hands and health, which is why the Semenov matryoshka looks so plump and blooming.
The pupae nested in each other symbolize a strong family, mutual aid and spiritual intimacy.
Where did the name "matryoshka"
The name of the Russian toy can be explained by analyzing all the facts listed below. Matryoshka, Matryona, Matresha - the root of the word is of Latin origin. Mater from Latin literally translates as "mother", it is interesting that the word has no other meanings.
Matryoshka - derived from the names of Masha, Manya, Maria. This is a widely used name among the Slavs at all times.
Matryoshka - the name of the Buddhist goddess Matri.
Forever in history
At the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900, the Russian matryoshka won universal recognition, after which its production went uphill, as demand grew several times. So in Semenov, the city of wooden products, they began to make new souvenirs. The Semenovskaya matryoshka, the creation story of which was just beginning, became the most demanded, as local craftsmen easily adopted the experience of making wooden toys, improved the technology, used bright paints for painting.
At first, the craftsmen worked out and then painted the dolls at home, then in the workshops, and later began working in factories, carrying out large orders.
Semenov was called the "spoonful capital" of Russia, and the dolls were not in the first place in the production of wooden products. They were made from waste from made spoons. Over time, having mastered the experience of making Russian nesting dolls from the Moscow craftsmen, local craftsmen introduced their characteristic features into the drawing of a Semyonov matryoshka. The image of a bright toy becomes recognizable, gaining popularity not only in Russia, but also abroad.
The first Semenovskaya nesting doll was born, the story of the creation of which is told in the article, in the Semenovsky district in the village of the Old Believers - Merinovo, Nizhny Novgorod region. Many residents of Merinovo then earned the sale of wooden utensils, detachable caskets of various shapes, made for the trade of strange toys turning, and then matryoshka.
Already in 1929, matryoshka dolls were made in the strict Semenov style - with a special painting, with a certain form, in the Trans-Volga style of wooden art. The first toy masters who created these dolls were Vaginas, the oldest Merin craftsmen. Their first dolls were made on the model of the same toys from Nizhny Novgorod - bearded old men and mustache men.
Another Merinovsky master toy-maker, Majorov, brought the same doll home from Nizhny Novgorod, only she was a pacifier, both inside and outside. The eldest daughter of the master painted the doll in her own way, dressing her in a Russian dress with bright red flowers on an apron, "putting" a bright kokoshnik on her head. So the matryoshka dolls, painted in the manner of merinovka, appeared, and together with the merin painting, a special form of this toy appeared. Thus was born the phenomenon of Semenov matryoshka.
Together with them in Semenov they turned out a large number of other wooden fun. Painters painted them all in the same style of Khokhloma painting. The drawings on the surface of wooden products were initially unpretentious, but over time the ornament was saturated with bright colors, more complex elements, and more plant patterns were added. Semenovskaya wooden matryoshka became very picturesque and colorful.
How to make nesting dolls
The nested doll is a hollow doll inside. Already it makes you think about the great skill of craftsmen who make it. Matreshsechnoe is very difficult, requires great skill and patience. Not every wood species is suitable for manufacturing, therefore the master takes the choice of wood very seriously. Often use such species as birch, linden, aspen, sometimes it is alder. The tree is cut down in late winter or early spring. The trunk is chosen even, without knots, which is then cut into several logs, after which the bark is removed, and so that the tree does not crack, when it dries, the edges are smeared with clay. After storing wood in a well-ventilated room, it is dried for a long time, but not overdried. “The tree is ringing - this is what we need!” - says the master, and he also checks it for odor. With precise and skillful movements, he grinds out the desired shape of the product, making the smallest with the very first matryoshka. The finished turned figure is ground, ground and polished. Only after that they begin to paint the surface using gouache, watercolor, acrylic or oil paints.
Marvelous beauty painting
The painting of the Semyonov matryoshka is made in the famous Semenovsky Khokhloma style, the picturesque elements and motifs of Ancient Russia are used. It is external, decorative elements that play an important role in the manufacture of a souvenir.
The first dolls were made for peasant children, so they signed with unpretentious patterns. With the help of a sharpened goose feather, the artists applied contours of the face and clothes, then all the elements were painted with aniline paints of bright shades of scarlet, crimson, blue, green and lilac. The basis of the Semenovka matreshka painting is large bright flowers, topped with pockets, circles, bows, small flowers. On top of the painted matryoshka, a layer of wax was applied, and later varnish was used.
This applies to traditional Semenov matryoshka, while over time souvenir dolls began to appear in the fashionable "Russian style", the silhouettes of which are filled with historical figures ("Taras Bulba", "Napoleon", "Kutuzov"). Often, famous individuals, families of kings (“The Romanov family”), boyars, writers (“Gogol”, “Pushkin”, “Krylov”) and heroes of their stories and fairy tales (“Repka”, “Kolobok”) became the face of the dolls.
Folklore heritage of the country
For many Semenovs, the matryoshka art became hereditary. Semenov workshops, toy circles and artels united in one factory. In 1954 the united artel "Toy" appeared, which in 1960 was reorganized into a factory. From this moment on, the production of multi-location nesting dolls is going on, dolls are made of 18, 25 nesting dolls. Multi-place nesting dolls were made for the most famous events and great dates.
Semenov masters painted 1600 dolls
The unique painting of the Semyonov matryoshka is observed to this day. Original souvenirs of the Semenovskaya Painting factory are surprising with their assortment. Recently Semenov masters painted 1600 nesting dolls, but they do not stop at that. As a souvenir, this toy has always been and will be a great gift both in our country and abroad. This indicates the international popularity of Russian nesting dolls.